Box sets » Inflation » GDP deflator

Line chart showing terms of trade and stacked bar chart showing inflation in 2023
In our November 2023 forecast we expect inflation to be both more persistent and more domestically generated than in March. In this box we explored the reasons behind our assessment for inflation to be more domestically rather than externally driven and its implications for the public finances.

Economy categories:
Nominal GDP    Inflation    Interest rates    GDP deflator    Output gap    Gas prices   

Fiscal categories:
Departmental spending    Welfare spending   

Cross-cutting categories:
Fiscal drag and price uprating   

International comparisons of the government consumption deflator
The government consumption deflator measures the implied price of government services. International comparisons show that different methodologies for deriving the government consumption deflator affect the extent to which nominal changes are interpreted as driven by changes in prices as opposed to volumes. This box outlined how these methodologies affected government consumption compared to pre-recession averages for six leading industrial countries.

Economy categories:
GDP by expenditure    Government consumption    GDP deflator   

Cross-cutting categories:
International comparisons   

How has the story changed since last year?
In our 2012 Forecast Evaluation Report, we noted that nominal GDP had held up closer to our June 2010 forecast than real GDP, helping to explain why our fiscal forecasts out to 2011-12 had remained broadly on track. This box in our 2013 Forecast Evaluation Report discussed how this assessment changed in light of revisions to GDP data. While nominal GDP now appeared to be weaker than forecast, the relatively tax-rich components - such as nominal consumption and wages and salaries - held up relatively well.

Economy categories:
Nominal GDP    GDP by expenditure    Economic data revisions    Real GDP    GDP deflator   

Cross-cutting categories:
Data revisions   

Government consumption
In the two years before our December 2012 forecast, real government consumption held up more than we had expected, with reductions in nominal government consumption affecting prices to a greater extent than we forecast. This box set out how these outturns would have been affected by the way the Office for National Statistics measures real government consumption, a large part of which is based on 'direct' measures of government activity.

Economy categories:
Government consumption    GDP by expenditure    GDP deflator   

In recent years, the government consumption deflator had been weaker than we expected. This box set out our assumption that the weakness of the government consumption deflator was likely to persist over the forecast period. The box also reviewed the outlook for the household consumption deflator and explained our assumption that this would be broadly equal to CPI inflation in the long run. Taken together with our assumptions for other deflators, these assumptions implied a medium-term GDP deflator growth assumption of 2 per cent, revised down from a previous assumption of 2.5 per cent

Economy categories:
GDP deflator    Inflation   

Cross-cutting categories:
Forecast process